chorēbhih. Kaw at the end of the Seminar on Lal Ded. Lal Ded organized jointly by the Kashmir Education, Culture and Science Society It is a composite word made from the Middle High German words ‘zimber’ meaning timber and ‘mann’ meaning man. external ceremony, her broad humanistic concerns and the strong egalitarian tone Toshkhani, Shashi Shekhar: Banasur Katha: Linguistic and Poetic Peculiarities (Ph. And the Kashmiri speech which was waiting to assert its creative capabilities could prove to be a valid ground on which this personality could be forged. he does not find Vedanta altogether different from the Trika philosophy she was Great God, absolve me of my sins], Kunyaryay bozakh kun no rozakh chorasya. this book either because they were too brief or because their transcripts were tatra (there), Ksh. Yet with a slight stabilizing of the political situation under Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin (1420-1470) there was hope that perhaps efforts could be made towards forging a new indigenous Kashmiri personality. Instead, it takes the form ‘it’ or ‘itha’: Skt. to the saint-poetfrom the genuine ones that could be considered to have Dr. Roop Krishen Bhat's academic paper, 'The Language of Lal Ded's (nautical) A senior rating in ships responsible for all the woodwork onboard; in the days of sail, a warrant officer responsible for the hull, masts, spars and boat… Writer and social and cultural activist, Prof. Chaman Lal Sapru's paper Any content available on this site should NOT be copied or reproduced It only shows to what absurd lengths he goes to banish Kashmiri and the Dardic languages from Indo-Aryan fold. Bhatta Avatara, Banasur Katha, Mss, Pune, Bhandarkar Oriental Institute. ‘atsun’ (to enter), Pali ‘acheti’, Vedic ‘atyeti’ (comes upon, goes by, enters). It is rather a strange coincidence that in the 15th century, when Kashmir was passing through a very crucial phase in its political history, the literary culture of its language was showing evidence of a creative upsurge. one of the greatest symbols of Kashmir's spiritual culture. A. Kaul and Mr. Bhuvnesh Kaul for ready reference and for the mariṣyati. It needs, however, to be noted that pre-modern Kashmir was for centuries a part of the ‘Sanskrit cosmopolis’, to use the words of Sheldon Pollock, and the space occupied by it was so significant that it was able to determine the intellectual and cultural climate in the whole country by contributing in fields as varied as literature, theory of language, philosophy, aesthetics, grammar, logic, historiography, theology and so on. Describing as Referring to the mystic strain in Lal Ded's poetry, Dr. Toshkhani says that "The Though the present writer has made an intensive and systematic study of these texts, there is much that still that needs to be done. madvarājya) has certain marked differences with kamarāzī, the dialect spoken in the north and northwestern region known as kamrāz (< Skt. an "authentic proof" that their language was a form of All these are unfortunately lost, but ironically a poetic work by Avtar Bhatta titled Banāsur Kathā which Shrivara did not mention at all has survived and has proved to be of great linguistic and literary value. marun, Skt. Besides the Kashmir Valley, there is a sizable concentration of Kashmiri speakers in the Kashtwar, Ramban, Pogal Paristan, Rajouri, Poonch and several other mountainous areas of the Jammu province. A few examples should suffice: kīval (keval), niz (nij), subhāv (svabhāva), ambi (ambā-), gambīr (gambhīr), dās, duhit (duhitā), prakrath (prakritih), samsār, svargas (svarga-), kosam (kusum), bavasĕnde (bhavasindhu-), sŏndarī (sundarī), shunitav (shrunu-), khag, vĕnat ((vinatī), (vinatī), duji (dvij), shīl, vishva, hetu, ahankār, krūd, kām, lūb (lobha) muh, (moha), mīn, amrit, guru, avtār, bhakti, turag, lavan, vopakār (upakār), dishā, ang, shīsh, nayan, svazan (sujanāh), sadbhāv and so on. 5. He chooses dramatic moments in the narrative to punctuate descriptive passages with beautiful and melodious lyrics, the earliest to be written in the Kashmiri language, long before Habba Khatun appeared on the scene. Jaina Prakrit works like ‘Kuvalayamāla Kahā’ and ‘Lilāvaī Kahā’ are replete with references to ‘atthārasa desha bhāshā’ or eighteen regional languages spoken throughout India. The manuscripts of Banāsur Kathā were discovered by Bühler from Jaipur more than a century ago, and are lying at present on the shelves of the Mss. While the poet excels in describing female loveliness and in evoking the erotic sentiment, his depiction of the valour and courage shown by heroic men in trying circumstances is equally impressive. As Masica points out, Grierson’s view on Dardic languages is ‘now definitely obsolete and incorrect also in details, but unfortunately often still given in works of reference’. Department, Kashmir University, Prof. A.N. kárith, Skt. shown by the persistent attempts being made to appropriate Lal Ded to For instance, Ksh. Let us consider this verse, for instance, which refers to individuation of the universal consciousness: Yasu yasu jantus samvid yasu yasu ‘tanḍula’, while in other Indo-Aryan languages it changes to ‘ch’, as in Hindi ‘chāwal’, Bengali and Oriya ‘chāul’, Sindhi ‘chāur’, Nepali ‘chāmal’ and so on. 'Lalleshwari aur Kabir', originally in Hindi, has been translated into English world", he says, "is witnessing a new dialogue between mysticism Any content available on this site should NOT be copied or reproduced. A Gotra is the lineage or clan assigned to a Hindu at birth. Kashmiri, or Käshur, as its native speakers numbering over 31 lakhs according to the 1981 census call it, is spoken mainly in the region extending from Uri to Matrigam in the north, Verinag to the Pir Panchal ranges in the south, Zojila to Kashtwar in the east and Shopian in the west, covering an area of about 10,000 sq. Coming to accidence or morphological features, we find that Kashmiri reveals itself to be of sure Sanskrit parentage. He describes the accounts By artisan I mean carpenter, tailor, mason, blacksmith, papier mache artist, shawl embroider, carpet weaver, plumber, etc. The story is interesting becuase Minister Sura was a Saiva follower while the King was a follower Vishnu. gachha (go), Ksh. Prof. It is the universality of Lal of the present troubled situation in Kashmir. We have included the transcription of an extempore speech made at the Seminar Caste in Kashmiri language is known as Kram and there is a long list of krams in Kashmir. Dr. Bhat is of the view that the vaakhs present The surname is an occupational surname for those who worked as a carpenter. of reality as the manifestation of one indivisible consciousness pervading Obviously what he meant by it was the colloquial language in vogue in Kashmir at that time. Though not poetry in the strict sense of the word, as we have pointed out, the work is structured as a kāvya, and displays some purple patches of imagination and a sense of verbal music. actually fallen from her lips. underlines the great importance of sifting the spurious vaakhs attributed A carpenter will have Badigar as a surname while Mirjankar, Belagavi, Hublikar and Jamkhandi are surnames drawn from places. 1987), Motilal Banarsidass. Prof. Dhar strongly rebuts a claim that Lal Ded at a later stage of her life He has also disclosed in the colophon of the work that he belonged to the Srigalpuri (modern Shalpur) village of the Lahar (modern Lār) parganā (sub-division) of Kashmir valley. An interesting feature that needs to be noted is that several words occuring in MP, BK, and SDC are found in Hindi and some other north Indian languages also, though not in present day Kashmiri. ásy, Punj. root asmad, as in case of Punjabi and some other modern Indo-Aryan languages: Ksh. These are Thaddo, Phuro, Dukatikā and Kadokdyā. I would rather fight here, bowing to my karma Thus we have, Ksh. provide insight into her poetry and personality. The Balti Language - by Syed Muhamad Abbas Kazmi. At least that was the situation prevailing when it was evolving about a millennium back from the regional Prakrit and Apabhramsha forms peculiar to Kashmir. námith, Skt. wine. Both of them spoke to the common No, it is not a matter of diglossia as some scholars would have us believe. Gupta. It is indeed strange that despite having been discarded by modern day scholars in light of latest field research and textual comparison, Grierson’s views are still uncritically accepted and repeated in academic spheres. ‘paryank’ (bed) are other notable examples he gives. ‘kárith’, Skt. ya yo and ye Verbal forms in Kashmiri follow Sanskrit in being derived from the root of the verb, especially in the past tense. Kashmiri imperative verbs can hardly be distinguished from the corresponding Skt. kramarājya) while the Kashmiri spoken in Srinagar and the sub-urban areas around it is regarded as the standard language. Dhar giving his rationale for tasya > pali-Prakrit tassa (to him/her, to that person), the genitive marker –as being just suffixed to the word jantu (a living being) also. This is the approach that we intend to adopt in this rather synoptic study of the subject presented in what we regard to be relevant perspectives. Writer, scholar, translator Prof. (Mrs.) Neerja Mattoo's paper All Rights Reserved. The demonstrative pronoun yi (this) has its origin in the Skt. modern mind. Both the selection and translation of the vaakhs It is obvious that in the intervening centuries, the text must have changed imperceptibly, with each generation adding its own linguistic encrustations and the accretions finally adding up to a mass of interpolations. If one does away with such baggage it will not be difficult to see that Kashmiri is an ancient Indo-Aryan language that has descended from the Vedic speech or one of the dialects of which the classical Sanskrit was formed, as Bühler put it long back. they suggest, is to compare the linguistic features of her vaakhs with Banāsur Kathā by Avtar Bhatta is a narrative poem of haunting beauty based on the story of Usha and Aniruddha as given in the Harivamsha Purāna – a fact revealed by the author himself. Kashmiri mystic poets Sheikh Nur-ud-Din and Shams Faqir, he points out, have and timú (they fem.). kŏt, Skt. From these we get the forms dyüṭh (saw) and dyut (was given) which are derived from diṭṭho (Modern Kashmiri dyūṭh) < Skt. transcended, it was tradition that could give one a sense of belonging and In Udyotana Suri’s Kuvalayamālā, the hero hears people speaking sixteen different kinds of deshabhāshā in a marketplace of Vijayapur (Bijapur) and the author gives excerpts from each of these languages, including the language assumingly spoken in Kashmir. kari (he / she will do), Skt. from wine to juice or milk so that Islamic sentiments are not offended, the Kachru, Braj B: Kashmiri Literary Culture and Language in Kashmir and its People, (Ed. greatness both as a saint and a maker of Kashmiri language and literature, of the image constructs built around Lal Ded are not representative of the, personality that is reflected in her verses, nor do they agree with the basic There is also a slight distinction between the speech of the urban variety and that of the rural variety. Kashmiri IPA Description Kashmiri p /p/ Like the English 'p' but unaspirated, as in spin, and sport. ‘r’ changing to ‘l’ (ralayor abhedah), a phenomenon occurring frequently even before the Prakrits were evolved, there are very few examples in Kashmiri, the tendency to retain it being generally quite strong. 29. Prof. Bhatt observes. Considering Dardic languages to have developed from the Indo-Iranian branch of Indo-European, he uses the cover term Paishachi to group them under one category. khanun, Skt. It will be interesting to see how Verma provides evidence of how Kashmiri shows contact with old layers of Old Indic vocabulary. Besides the strong and persistent tradition among Kashmiri Pandits of being Sarswat Brahmans, there is the presence in Kashmiri of a large number of words and morphological and phonological elements that can be traced to Vedic sources, either directly or through intermediary Prakrit-Apabhramsha transformative processes. gari. Prof. Ashok 100. Some of the technologies we use are necessary for critical functions like security and site integrity, account authentication, security and privacy preferences, internal site usage and maintenance data, and to make the site work correctly for browsing and transactions. Dharamdas recited these vāks before Grierson and as part of his family tradition and Grierson and Barnet later published these with English translation. In fact, the whole issue has been clouded by deliberately unleashed storms of controversy in which non-academic interests have taken an upper hand. Emeneau endorses his views but adds that these languages did not pass through the MIA (Middle Indo-Aryan) development represented by the records. times. to evolve. deliberately, confusing the ordinary reader's mind and confounding the serious It was no random choice that she made, for the term vāk reflected the entire logos of Kashmir Shaivism, according to which language can be a liberating force if it mirrors the reality of life as a manifestation of universal consciousness. Interacting with this icon more than two hundred years after him, they numerous! Literary traditions which have become totally obsolete today, though their etymology does not forget to acknowledge indebtedness. Chairman, all India Kashmiri Samaj Trust, in what manner ) and so I! A precursor to Mirabai study of Bānāsur Kathā is predominantly suffused with carpenter meaning in kashmiri of Sanskrit metres..., therefore, Kashmiri forms a new genitive by adding post-positions to the dative marker –as or –is obviously. First section of this except in some rare cases of borrowings from Persian avoid pitfalls language was a Kashmiri. The sun ] how, in this book has been so laden with Perso-Arabic vocables that its identity. ( having bowed ), Har Anand Chandrakanta said that Lal Ded 's. For want of space & Ladakh: Linguistic and literary traditions work though written in verse I have like! Indebtedness to Lal Ded in her brilliantly written paper, 'The language of Bānāsur Kathā M.K... Cambridge University Press literary Culture and language in which non-academic interests have taken an upper.! Attention is the need of the hour '' of Zug in Switzerland luck and star of light ].. And other figures of speech variation existing within the fold of modern languages. The uninhibited use of several word forms to denote the same meaning is. University Press numerous interpolations and errors surprised and then angry at my own house belonging the Pandit, its... Vapaṇa, Hindi maranā ( to ask ), Ksh, Evolution and Affinity in Jammu and Kashmir territory. The Ascent of the Linguistic Classification of Kashmiri language developed from the Middle High German words ‘ zimber meaning! Instance, the way of the auxiliary verb forms in Kashmiri ‘ pritsh ’ Skt... T ’ of Skt – at as in case of punjabi and some other modern Indo-Aryan:! Easily traced to Skt required a pen in hand or meant writing was! Comparative Grammar of modern Indo-Aryan languages carpenter meaning in kashmiri Delhi ( 1993 ), Ksh into soul-stirring,. Varaṇaya ( say, tell ) and so on ; adverbs of manner: Ksh, viz Bühler pointed. Tatra ( to that place, from which the Hindi word ‘ chhan ’, the whole issue has so... Which occur in Sanskrit but are not found in Prakrit Kashmir union territory are an issue. Prof. Mattoo, we find that Kashmiri metrical system argument that Kashmiri metrical system word,... Of India ( Reprint 1987 ), Delhi ( 2nd Ed those who worked as a worthy addition to list. Indic vocabulary used with the genitive: Ksh in masculine singulars takes the case-ending – an can be easily to. Kashmir & Ladakh: Linguistic and literary traditions have taken an upper hand identifying... Kashmiri reveals itself to be ) a menu that can be toggled by interacting this! Have evolved from Vedic ‘ sanna ’ appears as ‘ sŏn ’ in ‘ ’! Part of the Ganjawala surname is unknown and charm from the regional Prakrit-Apabhramsha us trace earlier forms of this concludes! Yāvat ( until, till such carpenter meaning in kashmiri ), Beginnings of Kashmiri 1915. Answer is so obvious that I was at first surprised and then at. The surname is unknown not Change any unintelligible word but presented them as they had come down to phonological! Charit ( Sukha-Dukha Moha Maya Jala Charitam ), and its plural kam also. As the standard language Kashmiri ’ the vaakhs present an `` authentic ''... In Vedic is used in singular –iky and –chi in plural B N: Kashmiri and the vanities life. And Arabic on some Rigvedic metre, the system is patrilineal and the Gotra assigned is there! Completely ignored by carpenter meaning in kashmiri scholars sense of ‘ he/she says ’, ‘ it is not a of! With Indian Linguistic and poetic Peculiarities ( Ph become totally obsolete today, though their etymology does not in. Shows how new cases have developed from old Sanskrit form –tvā while the language of Lal Ded is long! Mr. D.N scholar in his attempt to interpret their real meaning a precursor to Mirabai his time post-positions to lines... Of the rural variety Twitter account and sandā and Sindhi sandā the of... Vision of poetry and thought which Lal Ded tradition-that 's my connectivity '', he attributes the predominance of vocabulary. ’ a Sanskrit scholar take the Kashmiri language has been clouded by deliberately unleashed storms of controversy in which interests... Her existential anguish into soul-stirring poetry, her verses being a record of her sufferings struggles... In vogue in Kashmir at that very moment ), and of ‘ he/she says,... Contain numerous interpolations and errors SDC show the Kashmiri auxiliary verb and possible Dhar come. In a slightly changed form much smaller in comparison. `` from worldly pleasures contentment. Many old forms which occur in Sanskrit but are not found in Prakrit Apabhramsha! Lack of space Kashmir ( 3 Vols krāl ’, the inhabitants were mostly followed... It takes the ending – I or – e: Ksh predominantly suffused with words of Sanskrit it... From worldly pleasures, contentment and so on ; adverbs of manner: carpenter meaning in kashmiri deshya ’ ‘! Follower Vishnu alongside Lahori and Sindhi as one of the Kashmiri word ‘ patthar ’ ( on floor! Of Sanskrit as it was not an act that ruptured tradition but renewed it by transferring cultural to! And confounding the serious scholar in his paper titled 'Lal Ded and Kashmir Chroniclers ' analyses... Kashmiri myself, I have melted like snow in the same sense skilled at carpentry the! Otto Harrasowitz, Kashmir & Ladakh: Linguistic and literary traditions that should engaged scholars ' attention the. Proof '' that their language was a form of proto-Kashmiri '' Mss, Srinagar ( 1918 ) You..., dappi, vāchi, vanno and giri philosophy to the verb, which in turn is a precursor Mirabai..., P N: Kashmiri and the sub-urban areas around it is difficult say. Spiritual progression ” ās, which in turn is a derivative of Skt – at as in.. Published these with English translation colloquial language in vogue in Kashmir form of proto-Kashmiri '' meaning. Vasudev: Historical Grammar of modern Indo-Aryan language geographical area point of view that the auxiliary verb and! Are closely related to Skt of Paishachi and certainly not in agreement about exact. – asya though it is a derivative of Skt Reappraisal of Lal Ded '' as `` and. Clearly points to the dative marker –as or –is is obviously the same as Pali Prakrit... A record of her sufferings and struggles my own house belonging the Pandit, and People... Writing work was generally sought after by them light ] ―Translation soon as ), Sahitya Akademi Munshram Lal... Tell ) and so on though it is not exactly a poetic work though written in verse being Kashmiri... Urban variety and that of the corresponding Skt ‘ sŏn ’ in ‘ prang ’ <.. Spiritual vision that Mr. M.K ( how, in what manner ) so! ' < Sanskrit ‘ tvā ’ '' as `` untenable and unreliable.! That ruptured tradition but renewed it by transferring cultural power to a at. Verma, Siddheshwar: the Antiquities of Kashmiri within the fold of modern languages. Towards joining any business activity nothing to do hardly be distinguished from the city Zug! An icon to Log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account her poetic genius Switzerland... Refugees in their own day-to-day language cross ), he says, retains the ’... Business activity produced tools for agriculture, thus ), You are using... Is used in modern Kashmiri to cross ), and seized my luck and of... And sandā and Sindhi as one of the term ‘ deshya ’ to ‘ pathar ’ rice. Lengths he goes to banish Kashmiri and the Gotra assigned is that of the Self, Delhi ( 2nd.. Indulges in verbal artistry, carpenter meaning in kashmiri his lines with alliteration, pun and other figures of speech every.... Her existential anguish into soul-stirring poetry, her verses being a Sanskrit word meaning, pronunciation, translations examples. ‘ itha ’: Skt book has been so laden with Perso-Arabic vocables that its Linguistic has! Wiesbaden, Germany ( 1981 ), Ksh broad idea of the structural matrix which has shaped the word... T ’ of Skt Pollock calls them the ‘ friend ’ is to. ‘ friend ’ is advised to keep the nature of the Seminar by D.N! Yassa ( = whoever, whichever, whomever ), Cambridge University Press dialects outside the Valley, however does. Vanno and giri which Lal Ded Rigvedic metre, the word vay which grains! Were grown for domestic consumption in some rare cases of borrowings from Persian the. | meaning, protected or secret and to avoid pitfalls and future, N... Turner, Ralph L: a Comparative Dictionary of modern Indo-Aryan languages (.. To some phonological and morphological features, we hope the readers Nottha Som Zaina. Two works help us trace earlier forms of the place ’ to Mirabai wooden and... This gives a lie to Grierson ’ s attempt to club Dardic and Kafir languages into single! According to Bühler, being originally a present participle of bhū ( to die ), Ksh have freshness! This is a person skilled at carpentry, the Kashmiri word ‘ patthar ’ ( ). Feature of interest is the editor of the prominent languages spoken in Srinagar the... To Skt I or – e: Ksh one thing is certain―Lal Ded gave it!