The garlands consisted of persea leaves and blue and white lotus petals, while the remains of narcissus bulbs were found on the mummy’s neck. The practice of providing the dead with flowers in ancient Egypt goes back to the prehistoric times. Clearly the king hoped that the gods will grant  protection and long reign in return for his marvelous flower offerings. In addition, late Books of Going Forth by Day show the round floral wreath as a symbol of successful passing of the Tribunal of the Dead before Osiris. Ancient Egyptians also enjoyed constructing the bouquets in the shape of. HENG, Michèle (1989), Marc Saint-Saens décorateur mural et peintre cartonnier de tapisserie, 1964 pages. They did not often use vases, focusing instead on garlands and wreaths. R. Germer, ‘Flowers’, in: D.B. Bouquets were also used as architectural decoration though the small bouquets are rare (they appear in the Amarna palace and in the tomb of Panehsy for instance). Ancient Egypt was perhaps the first country to recognize national plants and flowers. In the Old Kingdom, a single flower or simple bunches of blue and white lotus or papyrus stems were common in offering scenes. Collars decorating sacred barks of the gods were wrought of precious materials. This deposit is probably related to a ritual shown in the tomb of the general Horemheb at Saqqara and. An unusual representation appears at the front of the carved wooden panel that forms the back of the chair found in the tomb of Yuya and Thuya. Pliny wrote that ‘In Egypt, they make chaplets of heliochrysis flowers wherewith they crown the statues of the gods, a custom which is most faithfully observed by Ptolemy the King of Egypt’. They regularly placed cut flowers in vases,[1] and highly stylized arrangements were used during burials, for processions, and simply as table decorations. The designs in this period were formal and symmetrical and often tightly arranged with a variety of flowers. Papyrus stalks with their flower umbels were also an important component of the composite bouquets that were brought to the tomb on the day of burial. L. Manniche – An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, London: British Museum Press, 1989 When open, the flower has a strong scent and it is visually captivating both as a bud, and when fully blown or separated into lancet-shaped petals. At the Predynastic site at el-Omari, floral remains consisted only of fragrant, yellow-flowering Pulicaria undulata from the daisy family, while a garland of long floral branches of Ceruana pratensis was found around the neck of an intact body at Hierakonpolis (HK43). Redford (ed. His sons apparently held similar titles as well – ‘gardeners’ and ‘bearers of divine offerings of Amun’. and 325 A.D., Roman citizens showcased their wealth with classical flower arrangements. Egyptian ponds and basins were often decorated white and blue lotus (Nymphaea caerulea) and with papyrus. The pink lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) was introduced from India probably after 525BC. As described earlier, garlands were made in flat strips by folding green leaves over strips of a palm leaf and sewing them together using thin strips of palm leaf. L. Manniche, Sacred Luxuries: Fragrance, Aromatherapy, and Cosmetics in Ancient Egypt. A selection of other flowers and fruits were then added to the core in tiers, one above the other, with smaller items filling the space between the larger ones, to ensure a compact form. Many other flowers have been found in the tombs of the ancient Egyptians, and garlands of flowers were worn by loved ones and left at the tombs. Laurel wreaths were presented to winners of athletic competitions in the ancient Olympics; these wreaths were also awarded to individuals winning competition in poetic meets, while in Rome they symbolized a military victory and crowned the successful commander in honor of his triumph. In addition, they were presented by returning husbands to their wives, who were depicted waiting at the door to welcome them back home. The climbing plant was most commonly called ‘convolvulus’ and was depicted in different forms, with the leaves occasionally shown rounded rather than triangular. The remaining third was folded once more to make a neat edge for the front of the collar. Bouquets being offered to the gods were frequently shown on monuments, and flowers were also used in decoration of the houses. Flowers were an important part of daily life, and  products of ancient Egyptian florists were indispensable during festive and religious occasions. Field or corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas L.) is one of the frequently represented flowers in ancient Egyptian art. M. Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, Volume II: The New Kingdom.Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976 Jun 29, 2017 - Horizontal, Vertical, Natural, Crescent, or my personal favorite "Formal Linear"..... just a few of the many styles of floral arranging. Papyrus had multiple uses in ancient Egypt and its stalks were edible. Ancient Egyptian floristry is one of the four types of historical floristry that make up the Classical Period of design style. At the Predynastic site at el-Omari, floral remains consisted only of fragrant, yellow-flowering. They were necessary offerings and were used in temple decorations. It was a time of great prosperity, and life was exciting and full of promise. These displays of mathematical and geometr In Pharaonic times stems of papyrus, which symbolized resurrection, were essential part of the offering goods that the deceased took into the grave. The Lotus Flower. His tomb in Theban necropolis contains representations of some of the most imposing bouquets made in Egypt, but also illustrations of his daily duties inspecting flower beds and overseeing the gardeners’ laborious tasks. They created paintings, carvings, and embroidered items with depictions of flowers. The garland found on the mummy of Ahmosi consisted of willow leaves, blue lotus and flowers of larkspur (Delphinium orientale). The Ancient History of Flower Arrangements. Flowers and bouquets were also used as decorative elements in everyday objects and furniture. Other flowers found in garlands, in addition to the ones used for the collars, include the indigenous Nile acacia, white acacia, sesban, hairy willow herb, hollyhock, safflower and flowers of henna bush. 72 (1986) The history of flower arrangements is long and varied, with stops all across the world and dating back thousands of years. ), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001 Guests were also encouraged to adorn their loved ones with garlands and lotus flowers. The green leaves of the persea (Mimusops laurifolia), the olive tree (Olea europaea), the Egyptian willow (Salix subserrata), the pomegrnate (Punica granatum) and presumably the wild celery (Apium graveolens) were all used, along with the colorful flower heads or petals of the cornflower (Centaurea depressa), the bitterweed (Picris asplenioides), the blue lotus (Nymphaea coerulea). F. W. Bissing, Die mastaba des Gem-ni-kai, Berlin : A. Duncker, 1905-11 These men clearly worked as hard during the cool nights as the ones working by day, in order to have flowers fresh and arranged for the next day. Colorful petals or flowers on stems would then be inserted between the leaves. Flowers were raised in gardens to make decorative bouquets and for use in religious ceremonies. Large mass flowers were placed tightly into containers to create compact arrangements that were asymmetrical and stacked tightly. At the first rays of  sun, the flower of the blue lotus opens up revealing its brilliant yellow calyx, surrounded by petals of beautiful gradients of blue, with a pleasing scent of the blossom matching its attractive appearance. A. Fahmy et al., ‘A Deposit of Floral and Vegetative Bouquets at Dra Abu el-Naga (TT 11)’. Other flowers that were most frequently added to the bouquets and other floral decorations in the New Kingdom were cornflowers, poppies and mandrakes. Specifically, these were the Lotus and Papyrus, symbolizing Upper and Lower Egypt, respectively. Another such garland could be also made and fastened to the first one, with the upper row slightly overlapping lower one. Sṯj-šʒ (literally ‘garden scent’), as they called them, were used for floral decorations and their fragrant blooms for crafting perfumed ointments. H. J. Kantor, Plant Ornament: Its Origin and Development in the Ancient Near East. The floral expressions of the Chinese have traditionally been based on the Confucian art of contemplation, the Buddhist principle of preservation, and Taoist symbolism. Thirteen rows of floral garlands were placed on the mummy of Rameses II, for instance, and a number of single blue lotus flowers were stuck under the bands sealing the mummy wrappings. The Greeks also added several local flora to their designs, notable grape leaves and Mediterranean herbs. A. M. Blackman, T. E. Peet, ‘Papyrus Lansing: A Translation with Notes’, G. Schweinfurth, ‘Der Blumenschmuck ägyptischer Mumien’, in. Finally, a collar was made of red painted papyrus to fasten the flowers and conceal the bindings. Flowers were common motif in art, but bouquets were also used as a decorative element by ancient Egyptian artists. Another such garland could be also made and fastened to the first one, with the upper row slightly overlapping lower one. Floral friezes often decorated the top of tomb walls. The practice of providing the dead with flowers in ancient Egypt goes back to the prehistoric times. 1, No. Ancient egyptian flower arrangements. 2 (May, 1929) *images of town houses TT23 & TT254 In various occasions, like during the Easter, the man used to … Plutarch, citing Theophrastus, wrote of the charm of ancient Egyptian garlands which, during one of his visits to Egypt, so much captivated Agesilaus, the king of Sparta, that he had to take some home with him. The long papyrus stalk could be entirely covered with flowers but also much of it could be left bare, in which case the bouquet would take on a less flowery effect. A poppy flower or mandrake could be also added to a lotus flower in the middle. Learn how your comment data is processed. Making of the formal bouquets was thus much more elaborate and tedious. In ancient times, papyrus (Cyperus papyrus) grew in thickets with ample fauna along the Nile, and was a symbol of life and fertility, but also of resurrection of the deceased. Flowers in ancient Egyptian floral arrangements. Flowers were also ubiquitous in the wall decoration of tombs. When … Ancient Egypt (2800 – 28 BC) The history of floral design begins in Ancient Egypt. Some of the popular flowers included the Lilium Candidum (or Madonna Lily, used as a symbol for fertility and chastity), narcissus, pinks, iris, jasmine, pansies, French marigolds, cornflowers, and rosemary. Other flowers that were admired during ancient Egyptian times consisted of the papyrus plant and the palm tree. The ‘Overseer of the Garden of the Ramesseum’, Nedjemger is also similarly depicted, standing in his office in the garden. Bouquets were presented to the deceased not only on the day of the burial but also on any festive occasion celebrated in the necropolis (e.g. G. Schweinfurth, ‘Der Blumenschmuck ägyptischer Mumien’, in Die Gartenlaube, Vol. Flowers were arranged in basins, wide mouth bowls made of gold, silver, or pottery. Flower Arranging has never so interesting! A simplified and stylized lotus motif was often used to adorn artistic objects, including papyrus paintings, amulets, and ceramics. Looking at ancient Egyptian architecture for instance, it can be noticed that flowers are omnipresent. Perhaps the rose’s most important role in this ancient culture was its close associated with the Egyptian Goddess of Love, Isis. Flowers in ancient Egyptian floral arrangements. chrysanthemum, lily, iris, and delphinium might have also been included, although not all of them appear in artistic representations of garden scenes. The tiger lily, the pomegranate, and the orchid symbolized fertility. The earliest known flower arranging dates back to ancient Egypt. These typically included lotus, poppy, cornflower and mandrake fruit. Munich and Berlin, 1986 Bundles of persea and sycamore fig branches were found in one of the five foundation deposits at the entrance of Senenmut’s lower tomb (TT 353). Redford (ed. R. Germer, ‘Pflanzlicher Mumienschmuck und andere altägyptische Pflanzenreste im Ägyptischen Museum’, in: Forschungen und Berichte, Bd. Floral garlands were frequently painted on the jugs and such ornamentation seems to had been derived from the practice of hanging real flower garlands on the vessels at feasts. But come noon, the flower closes into a bud and sinks back into the water, only to repeat the process the next day. At the end of the period the designs became more informal due to the fact that the fragrance of the flowers, which were believed to rid the air of diseases, became more important. to Cleopatra's time.[3]. They are often shown being held by seated nobles, or were brought as gifts, laid on offering tables, or placed upright on a stand. Language of Flowers. Exotic plants and trees were also appreciated and Ramses III, as told in Papyrus Harris, designed a ‘sacred way, splendid with flowers from all countries’. The pink lotus (. Frequently represented in Egyptian garden, the crimson flowers were used to fashion fresh bouquets, which also played an important part in the cult… During the Roman period, a 350-year period between 28 B.C. Lotus petal was then inserted in the persea leaf, keeping about half of it visible, and stitched with date-palm fibers. During the French Baroque period, a soft, almost fragile appeal became a major characteristic of floral design. Written By Bloomerang Solutions. The Chinese were making flower arrangements as far back as 207 BCE to 220 CE, in the Han era of ancient China. Blue lotus also possesses hallucinogenic properties, what was probably another reason for its popularity among ancient Egyptians. That the Egyptians loved their gardens and colorful flowers could be also seen at the exhibition ‘Ägyptische Gärten‘ at the Roman-Germanic Museum in Cologne, where reconstructions of floral collars from Tutankhamun’s funerary banquet were also shown. These bouquets were placed beside the mummy at the entrance to the tomb for final rites. L. Manniche – ‘The Tomb of Nakht, the Gardener, at Thebes (No. Bouquets were presented to the deceased not only on the day of the burial but also on any festive occasion celebrated in the necropolis (e.g. W. M. F. Petrie, Hawara, Biahmu, and Arsinoe. Considered the “king of flowers”, it symbolized wealth, good fortune, and high status. Their major characteristic was the variety of flowers within the bouquet. Nonetheless, lotus and papyrus kept their primary position as floral decorations, decorative elements, and symbolic plants. The beauty of flowers fascinated ancient Egyptians, which was all the more emphasized by the sacred and symbolic qualities they believed flowers possessed. Flowers were considered fashionable in this period. Papyrus stalks entwined with lotus flowers were also frequently depicted, as they symbolized the unification of the two parts of the country. Whether this was a case of survival of ancient Egyptian bouquets for thousands of years or just a similarity is nonetheless striking and worth mentioning. In the empire period they used simple lines in triangle shapes and strong color contrast. A. M. Blackman, T. E. Peet, ‘Papyrus Lansing: A Translation with Notes’, JEA Vol.11, No.3/4 (Oct., 1925) Persea leaf would be then folded one third from its top and folded again one third further down, fastening the leaf over the string. As a result, European countries began experimenting with plants that were previously unknown to them. These arrangements also focused on creating colour contrast. For example, the bamboo, the peach tree, and the pear tree symbolized longevity. Additionally, chrysanthemum, lily, iris, and delphinium might have also been included, although not all of them appear in artistic representations of garden scenes. A passage of Papyrus Lansing, as translated by Blackmann, states that ‘the florist(?) However, only few of these  stems survive, mainly from Amarna, Tanis and Deir el-Medina. One example of such a collar was found in the ruins of a house at Tell el-Amarna. Finally, a collar was made of red painted papyrus to fasten the flowers and conceal the bindings. At least half a dozen of these collars, presumably worn by the guests at the banquet that took place at the burial of Tutankhamun were found, three of which have survived almost intact. In ancient Egypt there were two main types of lotus that grew, the white, and the blue (scientifically a waterlily, but symbolically a lotus). In addition to a flower or a bud adorning the unguent cone, lotus petals sewn together were worn as a decorative hair band. A lettuce could be also added at one or each side of the bouquet. Ancient Egyptians also enjoyed constructing the bouquets in the shape of ankh, the sign which stands alike for ‘life’ and ‘bouquet’. These bouquets were placed beside the mummy at the entrance to the tomb for final rites. Servants are usually represented tying these decorations onto the guests, while singers and dancers, as shown in tomb paintings, were similarly adorned. As crusaders came back from the Middle East, they brought with them new and interesting plants. Mummy garlands can also consist of just green leaves, if those were fragrant enough of their own, such as mint, wild celery, or dill. Flowers were an integral component of religious teaching & medicine. Exotic plants and trees were also appreciated and Ramses III, as told in Papyrus Harris, designed a ‘sacred way, splendid with flowers from all countries’. Small bouquets could be very simple, consisting of little more than the binding and two Nymphaea buds and a flower. The Chinese were making flower arrangements as far back as 207 BCE to 220 CE, in the Han era of ancient China. Flower arrangements made during this time introduced a whole new element – the usage of tropical fruits. Papyrus Harris I, refers to a large number of different types of bouquets in its list of offerings for the god Amun. Keimer notes that bouquets similar to ancient Egyptian ones were sold on the streets of Tunis and Sas in early 20th century and worn by men tucked into their turbans. As abovementioned, formal bouquets were rather rudimentary during the Old and the Middle Kingdoms, consisting of simple bunches of lotuses held in the hand of the bearer, and papyrus stems, either tied together or entwined with ‘enigmatic lily of the south’. Sweet-smelling flowers in vases and flower bowls decorated their houses, and large lotus flowers were used for dining tables. A dependence on the power of herbs without reference to their Creator [God] was, however, regarded as improper for a Christian”. In Ancient Egyptian mythology, the lotus flower symbolizedthe sun and had strong ties to the concept of creation and rebirth. Like the Egyptians, the Greeks and Romans had preferences for the flowers and foliage they used. Columns were carved and painted in forms derived from plant motifs (papyrus, lotus, palm, or ‘composite’). Dr. Manniche provides diagrams of ancient gardens, a full analysis of the floral arts and a listing of the botanicals known to the Egyptians and their mode of use. Mummy garlands were placed in concentric semicircles either on top of the coffin or on the mummy’s body, with lotus flowers being sometimes tucked in between the linen bandages as well. By the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, flower arrangements were commonplace and a wide variety of materials were used to make containers, including marble, heavy Venetian glass, and bronze. R. H. Wilkinson, The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt, New York: Thames & Hudson, 2000 However, information about trade in flowers in ancient Egypt is still very limited. Floral decoration - Floral decoration - Eastern: The ancient Chinese could enjoy and feel themselves at one with the growth, maturity, and decline of a few flowers or a branch. The preferred flowers include roses, hyacinths, honeysuckle, violets, and lilies. Wealth and power led the Romans and Greeks to the greater luxury in the use of flowers which, like the Egyptian, were used in religious rites. 161) as Copied by Robert Hay’. Flowers were common motif in art, but bouquets were also used as a decorative element by ancient Egyptian artists. The intention behind such adornments for mummies and coffins seems to have been related with life-giving symbolism of flowers, alluding to rebirth. The tussie-mussie bouquets were still serving to eliminate odors. The simplest forms consisted of one or more papyrus stalks,  which could be twined with a climbing plant, or lotus flowers were added to extend above the papyrus. Practitioners of Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism placed cut flowers on their altars, a practice which dates back to 618-906 CE. More recently a number of garlands and floral collars were found in a coffin from the tomb KV63, with some collars even having gold intertwined in them as the ones shown in tomb paintings. They regularly placed cut flowers in vases, and highly stylized arrangements were used during burials, for processions, and simply as table decorations. The ancient Egyptian considered it as the symbol of strength and power. bearers, presenting exquisite display of artful composition, and were certainly among the most remarkable accomplishments of ancient Egyptian florists. Keimer notes that bouquets similar to ancient Egyptian ones were sold on the streets of Tunis and Sas in early 20. Arrangements were asymmetrical using the C-crescent or the S-shape. The climbing plant was most commonly called ‘, Large composite bouquets were often as  tall as their. It was during this time period that a wide variety of arrangement styles began to develop. The earliest known flower arranging dates back to ancient Egypt. The paintings can be found on vases, plates, scrolls, and silk, while carvings were done on wood, bronze, jade and ivory. Illustrations of arranged flowers have been found on Egyptian carved stone reliefs and painted wall decorations. The largest group of bouquets  was found recently in the courtyard of TT 11 at Dra Abu el-Naga. Men and women were frequently shown carrying lotus flower in their hands, often holding it to the nose to breathe in the ‘divine perfume’. A. Fahmy et al., ‘A Deposit of Floral and Vegetative Bouquets at Dra Abu el-Naga (TT 11)’, BIFAO 110 (2010) The lotus flower was a great sacred place in the life of the ancient Egyptians, and the lotus is a flowering water plant whose name came from the word given to it by … Manniche, Lise An Ancient Egyptian Herbal Austin: University of Texas Press, 1989. The white lotus (Nymphaea lotus), on the other hand, blooms during the night, eventually becoming the symbol of continuity and renewal of life, which was so essential to ancient Egyptians. The blue lotus (Nymphaea caerulea Savigny) was the most popular flower in ancient Egypt. 2160 bce) the Egyptians placed flowers in vases. Really interesting post and an enjoyable read! R. Germer, ‘Flowers’, in: D.B. It … ©Lise Manniche. Long papyrus stems with their flower umbels were used for the base of tall composite bouquets. These simple floral offerings gave rise to much more elaborate formal bouquets during the New Kingdom, characterized by the great development of the floral wares. These civilizations influenced the art of floral design in their uses and arrangements of floral materials. Large quantities of flowers were offered to the gods and a well organized industry was necessary to provide them. Bouquets were also used as architectural decoration though the small bouquets are rare (they appear in the Amarna palace and in the tomb of Panehsy for instance). Large composite bouquets were often as  tall as their bearers, presenting exquisite display of artful composition, and were certainly among the most remarkable accomplishments of ancient Egyptian florists. They arranged and even cultivated roses, acacia, violets, poppies, violets, jasmine, Madonna lilies and narci… The history of flower arrangement dates back to ancient Egyptian times. This all changed during the New Kingdom, when a variety of flowers, grasses, leaves, and fruits began to be artfully arranged into wreaths, garlands, collars and bouquets of various shapes. Small bouquets were conveniently made to be hand-held so that one could enjoy their beauty and fragrance at a close distance. And now the pure white Egyptian Lotus Flower, the only plant to fruit and flower simultaneously is the national flower of Egypt. There is a number of different types of floral friezes, some of them being partially based on the garlands made by the florists, incorporating flowers, fruits, series of petals, etc. makes bouquets’ and he also adorns wine jars with floral wreaths; ‘he spends a night of toil, like one on whose body the sun is shining’. The garland wreath was a symbol to the Greeks of power, honor, allegiance, dedication; it was awarded in honor of athletes, poets, civic leaders, soldier, and heroes. In the later part of the Gothic period flowers reached a more dominant role, such as flowers beginning to blossom in altar pictures, manuscripts, and paintings. A few additional stems from Passalacqua’s collection obtained from Thebes can be seen in Berlin Museum, and a few more of unknown provenance are kept in Turin Museum. In addition, late. Thank you very much! As abovementioned, formal bouquets were rather rudimentary during the Old and the Middle Kingdoms, consisting of simple bunches of lotuses held in the hand of the bearer, and papyrus stems, either tied together or entwined with ‘enigmatic lily of the south’. However, other species are more likely candidates according to Manniche, such as black bryony, smilax, birthwort, etc. On occasion, a high priest would also present one of the bouquets from the altar of the gods to a worshipper, as shown in the tomb of Neferhotep, who by leaving the temple passed the bouquet of Amun to his wife Mereyet-Amun, who had waited for him outside the temple. A. Erman, Life in Ancient Egypt, New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1971 The designs in Greece were mostly aesthetic, with less use of flowers as offerings or divine symbols than in Egypt. In addition, faience bowls were made of ground… N. de Garis Davies, ‘The Town House in Ancient Egypt’. Lotus flower adorning an unguent cone and a small collar used as a hair ornament (TT113). he lotus thus  became associated with the idea of creation and rebirth (one of the creation myths describes a newborn sun rising out of a lotus floating on the waters of Nun). The most honored of all flowers was the peony. The blue lotus (Nymphaea caerulea Savigny) was the most popular flower in ancient Egypt. Flowers were always to be found in Egyptian homes. The multiplicity of types cited indicates that the florist’s trade was well-developed at this time. Egyptian lotus flowers were one of the symbols of Upper Egypt, while the papyrus flower were one of the symbols of Lower Egypt. They would place plant material, such as olive branches, in terracotta. Fifty bouquets were found in a small pit, together with probably intentionally broken  pottery vases, dating back to XX-XXI Dynasty. In addition to ornamental decorations, Egyptians also employed flowers as an artistic medium. First, a string is made by twisting fibers of palm leaves (about 20 inches of the string on both sides are left free to tie the collar). The blue and white lotus are actually two varieties of water lily, but they are universally called ‘lotus’ by Egyptologists, due to a confusion dating back to Herodotus’ time. Münchner Ägyptologische Studien Heft, 43. There were over nineteen species of fruit and shade trees found in one single temple garden. The most popular foliage used by the Greeks and the Romans were acorns, oak leaves, laurel, ivy, bay[clarification needed] and parsley. In the paintings, fruit blossoms and leaves were woven into garlands to decorate walls and vaulted ceilings, and petals were piled into baskets or strewn on the floors, streets, or allowed to float down from balconies. In terms of presentation, the Greeks liked to arrange their flowers in triangular and symmetrical patterns. Nelumbro nucifera, better known as the lotus or water Lilly, was a real favorite Egyptian flower. Their daughter, queen Tiye is shown with two princesses on a papyrus boat, the ends of which are shaped as elaborate bouquets. The White Egyptian Lotus have a deep history with antient religions. The lotus flower also had major significance in ancient Egyptian history. Blue lotus also possesses hallucinogenic properties, what was probably another reason for its popularity among ancient Egyptians. Ancient Egypt. [2] These included blue scilla, poppy-flowered anemone, Iris sibirica, delphinium, narcissus, palm tree, papyrus and rose. The Egyptians (2800 – 28 BC) Artifacts found in ancient Egyptian tombs record how that civilization used flowers. At the end of this period attempts were made to set up rules for a proper arranging of flowers, which is when it became an artful skill or profession in Europe. Other flowers such as tulips, larkspur, and marigolds[citation needed] were also selected for their shape, color, and form. Flowers commonly included in these arrangements were daisies, lilies, cypress, carnations, and pine. The ointment spoons were frequently fashioned in the shape of the bouquets. Anybody who has taken a look at Egyptian culture cannot fail to have noticed the significance of the meaning of the Lotus flower in their culture.. In addition, they were presented by returning husbands to their wives. Bouquets being offered to the gods were frequently shown on monuments, and flowers were also used in decoration of the houses. The leafy branches were probably used for weddings. L. Manniche – ‘The Tomb of Nakht, the Gardener, at Thebes (No. Roses were wrapped around lotus sticks and presented to the loved ones. , 1999 ( original MS from 1945 ) J. Dittmar, Blumen und Blumensträusse Opfergabe! 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